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The ancient liquid has much silty sediment. About two-thirds of the contents are a thicker, hazy mixture.

This is most probably olive oil, which the Romans commonly used to "float" atop wine to preserve it from oxidation. Cork closures, although known to exist at the time, were quite uncommon.

Their oil method of preservation was apparently effective enough to keep the wine from evaporation up to modern day.

The bottle is on permanent display, along with other wine antiquities, at the Historisches Museum der Pfalz History Museum of the Pfalz , worth a visit if traveling near the area of Speyer, Germany.

The Romans also adapted wooden cooperage, an invention they acquired with the spoils of conquering Germanic tribes, to wine storage and transportation.

This was a great advance for operations previously accomplished in skins or clay jars amphora. They may also have been the first to use glass bottles, as glassblowing became more common during this era.

Beginning about BC, Roman exploits were as significant as Roman experiments as the armies of Rome planted wine vines in the wake of their conquests, all over the land mass now known as Europe.

It wasn't long before these regions began developing their own vineyards and the Roman Emperor forbid the import of French wines to eliminate competition with the local wines.

Over the next few centuries, France would become dominant on the world wine market. Monastic wineries were responsible for establishing vineyards in Burgundy, Champagne and the Rhine Valley.

Sacramental usage preserved wine industry methods and traditions through the dark ages. The end of the Hundred Years War in left the city of Calais as the only French territory still under British control and trade between England and France nearly cut off.

Political conflicts between England and France ultimately benefitted competition in the export wine market. From until , tariffs restricted French wine imports and encouraged those from Portugal, so the English "discovered" and developed a great love of Port.

Exploration, conquest and settlement brought wine to Mexico, Argentina and South Africa in the s and s. Although there were many attempts during this period to plant European wine vines along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of North America and in the Mississippi River basin valleys, none were successful.

Each vineyard planted would die off within two or three seasons. No one apparently sought to determine why, even though little difficulty was encountered in Mexico or California vineyards.

In the late s, one answer to this mystery would ultimately prove fatal for nearly all the vineyards of Europe. The success was such that the King of Spain forbid new plantings or vineyard replacements in Mexico after , fearing his colony would become self-sufficient in wine.

This edict was enforced for years, effectively preventing a commercial wine industry from forming. As in Europe, however, vineyards survived under the auspices of the church and the care of the missions.

Father Serra continued to establish eight more missions and vineyards until his death in and has been called the "Father of California Wine".

The variety he planted, presumably descended from the original Mexican plantings, became known as the Mission grape and dominated California wine production until about In the s and '60s, the colorful Agoston Harazsthy, a Hungarian soldier, merchant and promoter, made several trips to import cuttings from of the greatest European vineyards to California.

Some of this endeavor was at his personal expense and some through grants from the state. Overall, he introduced about different grape varieties, although some were lost prior to testing, due to difficulties in preserving and handling.

Considered the Founder of the California Wine Industry, Harazsthy contributed his enthusiasm and optimism for the future of wine, along with considerable personal effort and risk.

He founded Buena Vista winery and promoted vine planting over much of Northern California. He dug extensive caves for cellaring, promoted hillside planting, fostered the idea of non-irrigated vineyards and suggested Redwood for casks when oak supplies ran low.

French chemist Louis Pasteur, among many discoveries relating to his germ theory of diseases, first proposed and proved, in , that wine is made by microscopic organisms, yeasts.

This led to the discovery and development of different yeast types and properties and ultimately to better hygiene, less spoilage, and greater efficiency in wine production.

Chauvet vineyard and winery, circa Joshua Chauvet planted his own vineyard in Agoston Harazsthy had employed him at one time. Chauvet also started the first brickyard, the first lumber mill.

Hotel Chauvet in tiny Glen Ellen still exists today. Photo courtesy of Fleet Irvine Photomurals. In , Dr Jules Guyot, another Frenchman, published the first of three treatises describing regional traditional vinicultural and viticultural practices as well as his own observations and arguments on the economy of grape growing.

Before these documents, viniculture was a practice that had been apprenticed from generation to generation for over years, with very few written records and no formal instruction.

These cuttings carried a species of root louse called phylloxera vastatrix which attacks and feeds on the vine roots and leaves.

Phylloxera is indigenous to the Mississippi River Valley and was unknown outside North America at the time. Powdery mildew, a fungal disease, also indigenous to North America, had previously migrated to Europe and caused problems in some areas.

No one, however, had any idea of the wide-reaching destructive potential of Phylloxera. Native American varieties developed resistance to phylloxera by evolving a thick and tough root bark, so that they were relatively immune to damage.

The vinifera vines had no such evolutionary protection and phylloxera ate away at their roots, causing them to rot and the plant to die and driving the pests to seek other nearby live hosts, spreading inexorably through entire vineyards and on to others.

By , phylloxera had spread to vines in Provence. Over the next 20 years, it inhabited and decimated nearly all the vineyards of Europe.

Many methods were attempted to eradicate phylloxera: Finally Thomas Munson, a horticulturist from Dennison, Texas, realized that native American vines were resistant and suggested grafting the vinifera vines onto riparia hybrid rootstocks.

So, there began a long, laborious process of grafting every wine vine in Europe over to American rootstocks. It was only in this manner that the European wine industry could be retrieved from extinction.

Downy mildew, another fungal disease in American grapevines, unfortunately probably migrated to Europe on some of the rootstocks imported for grafting.

One tragic consequence of the Phylloxera devastation is that many of the native species indigenous to Europe, since they were of negligible commercial value, were not perpetuated by grafting and became extinct.

Wine making emerged in Europe with the expansion of the Roman Empire throughout the Mediterranean, when many major wine producing regions that still exist today were established.

Even then, wine making was a precise husbandry that fostered the development of different grape varieties and cultivation techniques. Barrels for storing and shipping emerged, bottles were used for the first time, and even a rudimentary appellation system developed as certain regions gained a reputation for fine wine.

As wine production became progressively refined, its popularity increased, and wine taverns became a common feature in cities throughout the Empire.

The art of vitiviniculture spreading over Europe With centuries passing , the art of wine making spread to France, Spain, Germany and parts of Britain.

By that time, wine was considered an important part of daily diet and people began to favour stronger, heavier wines. European appreciation of wine endured throughout the Dark Ages.

Partly because drinking water was still unreliable, wine was the preferred alternative to accompany meals. At the same time, viticulture and viniculture advanced thanks to the husbandry of Church monasteries across the continent, which gave rise to some of the finest vineyards in Europe.

The merchant and noble classes had wine with every meal and maintained well-stocked cellars. During the 16th century, wine became appreciated as a more sophisticated alternative to beer and as wine products began to diversify, consumers began to value the concept of varying their drinking habits.

People began to discuss the virtues and vices of wine with greater gusto than in previous centuries.

The Shakespearian era saw the availability of fresh drinking water in London, a breakthrough that moved the wine industry into a new age. Shedeh , the most precious drink in ancient Egypt, is now known to have been a red wine and not fermented from pomegranates as previously thought.

This was considered to be the reason why drunkenness "drives men out of their senses and crazes them, inasmuch as they are then filled with the blood of their forebears".

Residue from five clay amphoras in Tutankhamun 's tomb, however, have been shown to be that of white wine , so it was at least available to the Egyptians through trade if not produced domestically.

As recipients of winemaking knowledge from areas to the east, the Phoenicians were instrumental in distributing wine, wine grapes, and winemaking technology throughout the Mediterranean region through their extensive trade network.

Their use of amphoras for transporting wine was widely adopted and Phoenician-distributed grape varieties were important in the development of the wine industries of Rome and Greece.

The only Carthaginian recipe to survive the Punic Wars was one by Mago for passum , a raisin wine that later became popular in Rome as well.

Much of modern wine culture derives from the practices of the ancient Greeks. The vine preceded both the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures.

Indeed, the most popular modern Greek wine, a strongly aromatic white called retsina , is thought to be a carryover from the ancient practice of lining the wine jugs with tree resin, imparting a distinct flavor to the drink.

The Greek Theophrastus provides the oldest known description of this aspect of Greek winemaking. In Homeric mythology, wine is usually served in " mixing bowls " rather than consumed in an undiluted state.

Dionysus , the Greek god of revelry and wine—frequently referred to in the works of Homer and Aesop —was sometimes given the epithet Acratophorus , "giver of unmixed wine".

Chian was credited as the first red wine , although it was known to the Greeks as "black wine". However, as the emphasis of viticulture increased with economic demand so did the consumption of alcohol during the years to come.

The Greeks embraced the production aspect as a way to expand and create economic growth throughout the region.

Greek wine was widely known and exported throughout the Mediterranean , as amphoras with Greek styling and art have been found throughout the area.

The Greeks may have even been involved in the first appearance of wine in ancient Egypt. Use of wild grapes in production of alcoholic beverages has been attested at the Jiahu archaeological site c.

Archeologists have found pottery shards showing remnants of rice and grape wine dating back to BCE in Jiahu village in Henan province.

Archaeologists have discovered production from native "mountain grapes" like V. Dayuan , Bactria , and the Indo-Greek Kingdom.

These had brought viticulture into Central Asia and trade permitted the first wine produced from V. Wine was imported again when trade with the west was restored under the Tang dynasty , but it remained mostly imperial fare and it was not until the Song that its consumption spread among the gentry.

Herodotus , writing about the culture of the ancient Persians in particular, those of Pontus writes that they "very fond" of wine and drink it in large quantities.

The Roman Empire had an immense impact on the development of viticulture and oenology. Wine was an integral part of the Roman diet and winemaking became a precise business.

Virtually all of the major wine-producing regions of Western Europe today were established during the Roman Imperial era. During the Roman Empire, social norms began to shift as the production of alcohol increases.

Further evidence suggests that widespread drunkenness and true alcoholism among the Romans began in the first century BC and reached its height in the first century AD.

The measure was widely ignored but remained on the books until its repeal by Probus. Winemaking technology improved considerably during the time of the Roman Empire.

Vitruvius noted how wine storage rooms were specially built facing north, "since that quarter is never subject to change but is always constant and unshifting", [61] and special smokehouses fumaria were developed to speed or mimic aging.

Many grape varieties and cultivation techniques were developed. Barrels invented by the Gauls and glass bottles invented by the Syrians began to compete with terracotta amphoras for storing and shipping wine.

Following the Greek invention of the screw , wine presses became common in Roman villas. The Romans also created a precursor to today's appellation systems, as certain regions gained reputations for their fine wines.

The Romans recognized three appellations: Caucinian Falernian from the highest slopes, Faustian Falernian from the center named for its one-time owner Faustus Cornelius Sulla , son of the dictator , and generic Falernian from the lower slopes and plain.

The esteemed vintages grew in value as they aged, and each region produced different varieties as well: Other famous wines were the sweet Alban from the Alban Hills and the Caecuban beloved by Horace and extirpated by Nero.

Pliny cautioned that such 'first-growth' wines not be smoked in a fumarium like lesser vintages. Wine, perhaps mixed with herbs and minerals, was assumed to serve medicinal purposes.

During Roman times, the upper classes might dissolve pearls in wine for better health. Cleopatra created her own legend by promising Antony she would "drink the value of a province" in one cup of wine, after which she drank an expensive pearl with a cup of the beverage.

Through the Church, grape growing and winemaking technology, essential for the Mass, were preserved. The oldest surviving bottle still containing liquid wine, the Speyer wine bottle , belonged to a Roman nobleman and it is dated at or AD.

Lebanon is among the oldest sites of wine production in the world. However, in the Arabian peninsula , wine was traded by Aramaic merchants, as the climate was not well-suited to the growing of vines.

Many other types of fermented drinks, however, were produced in the 5th and 6th centuries, including date and honey wines. The Muslim conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries brought many territories under Muslim control.

Alcoholic drinks were prohibited by law, but the production of alcohol, wine in particular, seems to have thrived. Wine was a subject for many poets, even under Islamic rule, and many khalifas used to drink alcoholic beverages during their social and private meetings.

Egyptian Jews leased vineyards from the Fatimid and Mamluk governments, produced wine for sacramental and medicinal use, and traded wine throughout the Eastern Mediterranean.

Christian monasteries in the Levant and Iraq often cultivated grapevines; they then distributed their vintages in taverns located on monastery grounds.

Zoroastrians in Persia and Central Asia also engaged in the production of wine. Though not much is known about their wine trade, they did become known for their taverns.

Wine in general found an industrial use in the medieval Middle East as feedstock after advances in distillation by Muslim alchemists allowed for the production of relatively pure ethanol , which was used in the perfume industry.

Wine was also for the first time distilled into brandy during this period. In the Middle Ages , wine was the common drink of all social classes in the south, where grapes were cultivated.

In the north and east, where few if any grapes were grown, beer and ale were the usual beverages of both commoners and nobility. Wine was exported to the northern regions, but because of its relatively high expense was seldom consumed by the lower classes.

Since wine was necessary, however, for the celebration of the Catholic Mass , assuring a supply was crucial.

The Benedictine monks became one of the largest producers of wine in France and Germany, followed closely by the Cistercians.

Other orders, such as the Carthusians , the Templars , and the Carmelites , are also notable both historically and in modern times as wine producers.

The nearby winemaking monks made it into an industry, producing enough wine to ship all over Europe for secular use.

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